Friday, November 14, 2008

Diagnostic criteria for depressive episode

The main symptoms:
• lowering of mood, evident in comparison with the inherent patient norm, the dominant daily, and most of the day and continued at least 2 weeks regardless of the situation;
• marked reduction of interest or pleasure from activities that are usually associated with positive emotions;
• reducing energy and increased fatigue.
Additional symptoms:
• reducing the efficiency of focus;
• lowering self-esteem and sense of self-doubt;
• idea of guilt and self-effacement (even in light depressions);
• dark and pessimistic vision of the future;
• ideas or actions relating to self or suicide;
• disturbed sleep;
• broken appetite.
It should be noted that depression at the moment remains the most common mental disorder that requires adequate drug therapy. It is widespread depression leads on the one hand, to underestimate the role of development in the clinical picture of various diseases, including dementia, on the other - to hyper diagnostic depression and inadequate appointment of antidepressants.

Fruit and vegetable juices help prevent Alzheimer's

Drinking fruit and vegetable juice several times a week may help prevent Alzheimer's disease, showed the results of a new study, reported AFP.
The study was conducted 9 years in Seattle and has affected nearly 2 thousand people, led by professor at the University of Tennessee (USA) Key Dej. People filled out questionnaires about their lifestyles and preferences in foods. The state of health was recorded.
Research has shown that the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease is reduced by 76% among those who used the fruit or vegetable juice at least three times a week. Among those who used the juice once a week, the risk of the disease decreased by 16%.
Earlier Society believed that the prevention of Alzheimer's great role played by vitamins C and E. But now it is clear that the case not only in them. The author of the study believed that the disease could hinder development and natural antioxidants - polyphenols contained in tea, wine and soke.
Remarkably, the study did not identify any specific fruit or vegetable juices that help prevent Alzheimer's disease better than others.
Alzheimer's - a progressive disease in which patients gradually lose their memory and become unable to care for themselves. Medicines for him does not exist, modern drugs provide only temporary improvement.
It is believed that the disease causes sticky protein called beta-amyloid. It is contained in the brain, but healthy cells are able to get rid of its surplus. However, in patients with Alzheimer beta-amyloid accumulates, forming lump, which cover the cage.
In the U.S. Alzheimer's affects about 4.5 million people in Western Europe - 5.4 million.

Alzheimer's Disease: I think more

The most terrible disease XXI century may become senile marauds. Life expectancy in developed countries is constantly growing: the projections demographers, for example, half of girls born in 2000, live to 100 years. At the same time, after 65 years, the man threatened senile dementia - Alzheimer's disease. If scientists did not find drugs against the disease, it has been 50 years in the world will be 45 million marauds - more than cancer patients.
The American scientist Steven Austad believes that the average person will survive until the 150 the anniversary because, in his view, thanks to modern technology will soon be constructed of high quality and biologically adapted to the body «spare parts». According to another American scientist Jay Olshansky, the average length of human life in the XXII century, despite the gene therapy and cloning, will not exceed 130 years.
Studies have long shown that they have achieved so old age thanks to good health, and many continue to keep it until the end of his days
Long, who studied Dr. Thomas Perlz from Harvard Medical School, managed to avoid many of senile diseases - stroke, cardiovascular disease and others. According to Dr. Perzl sharp rise in long-livers in the United States over the past 10 years caused massive changes in lifestyle: Americans have to monitor their weight is healthy food, less smoke and more in sports. It is the combination of good heredity, a good environment and healthy lifestyles, according to scientists, and ensures longevity.
Physiology of aging studies have shown that the aging process involves two closely related system of the body: endocrine (hormone responsible for the formulation) and immunity (protecting the body against infection). From the age of the body resistance to disease drops. Scientists attribute this to age in violation of endocrine balance: a substance produced by the beginning of a larger, others - in smaller numbers. So, even if the medicine man learns to replace all the fastest frayed organs (heart, lungs, liver), it is unlikely to make him immortal.
Another more wear body, which can not yet be replaced - it is the brain. According to Lynn Adler, a pioneer in the study of long-livers in the United States, the most important problem associated with aging - a violation of the functions of the brain and senile dementia caused by the disease, first described in detail by German doctor Alloiz Alzheimer and called his name.

Thursday, October 16, 2008

Medicines for Alzheimer's disease already on the way

Scientists from Edinburgh University of St. Andrews (University of St Andrews)
find a way of blocking the processes that lead to the development of Alzheimer's disease - reports Daily Telegraph.

Scottish scientists together with their American colleagues have made a big step towards rede development mechanisms of Alzheimer's - degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, which gradually decreases intellectual activity and the brain suffers memory. Only in the United States of Alzheimer's disease affects 4 million people in Britain - half a million, mostly elderly. The disease is characterized by deposit amyloid protein in the brain - as the surrounding neurons education plaque, and within neurons in the formation of interlocking neyrofibrillyarnyh - these processes kill brain cells. On
cellular level essence of the disease is that amyloid «closes» at the castle enzyme, called amyloid-beta alcohol- dehydrogenase (Amyloid Beta Alcohol Dehydrogenase, ABAD), blocking its action.

Scientists managed to develop a chemical compound that prevents amyloid protein interact with brain cells. To understand how amyloid introduces himself in the box at St. Andrews have created three-dimensional model of ABAD. When the mechanism was understood, was a chemical trap - peptide, which attracted amyloid protein and «offered» him to join him, but not to ABAD. If amyloid has been introduced into the structure of ABAD, then the trap helped to be disconnected from the amyloid protein molecules ABAD and introduced into the structure of peptide.

Scientists have studied opportunities peptidnoy traps on laboratory mice and found that those animals that suffer from memory after memory of the drug seriously improved. Also they have recovered the ability to learn.

According to Frank Gunn-Moore (Dr Frank Gunn-Moore), a professor of biology at St. Andrews, «We have shown that it is possible to stop some signs of the development of Alzheimer's disease». The study, he said, provides a possible key to the treatment of disease, especially - in the early stages. However, according to Gunn-Moore, you will need to at least three years to convert peptide trap in the real drug, and several more years - to test its ability to humans.

The Fund support for research of Alzheimer's (Alzheimer's Research Trust) has been called the results of the study «exciting». Dr. Susanne Sorensen (Dr Susanne Sorensen), director of the Research Society of the fight against Alzheimer's disease (Alzheimer's Society), said that the results of the study added an important piece of knowledge to razgadke nature of the disease and offer a possible way of treatment.

Alzheimer determined by blood

The company Power3 Medical Products, USA, has developed a test for the identification of Alzheimer's disease at an early stage of the analysis of blood, reports BBC News.

Suffers from Alzheimer's disease about 2-5% of people over 65 years and up to 20% of people over 85 years. It destroys the conscience, is absurd and beyond death. Now Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disease, identified only when symptoms become pronounced.

The test NuroPro defines Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Gehrig's disease) on the levels of 59 biomarkers - blood proteins. Clinical trials that have already brought together 180 people, showed the success of the test in 70% of cases.

Last summer the company intends to issue a test of free sale in Greece, by the end of the year - in the United States.

While Alzheimer's disease is considered incurable, but scientists have announced razgadke mechanism for its development as well as taking a drug that can remove the symptoms of the disease at an early stage in 10 minutes.

Alzheimer's sparing no good and educated

Alzheimer's sparing no good and educated

Good people with a high degree of self-leading regular lives, less prone to the development of Alzheimer's disease, just as people with higher education; to the conclusions reached American and Swedish researchers, whose article published in the journal «General Psychiatry»
( «General Psychiatry») and «Neyrologiya» ( «Neurology»).

The first conclusion made by doctors at the University Medical Center Rasha (Rush University Medical Center) in Chicago, USA. They examined the health status of some thousands of Catholic monks and priests (an article in the magazine «General Psychiatry» quotes Reuters). It turns out that among most of which were measured, good life and restrict themselves to food and bodily pleasure (that is, have a high level of self), the number of patients with Alzheimer's disease was very low, much lower than that of ordinary people. In the surveyed group has not been a single case of dementia since 1994.

Data obtained from the survey of monks, researchers compared the data with ordinary people, who were asked to evaluate themselves on a scale «good» and the self (in the latter case it was necessary to put yourself from 0 to 48 points). The average level of self was 34 points. As it turned out, people with high self (who scored 40 points or more) to 89% less likely to suffer Alzheimer's than those who had low self (28 points or less).

As suggested by the authors of the report, high levels of self allows people a long time to deal with the approaching dementia syndromes: cognitive failure and mild cognitive decline (they are the two main symptoms of Alzheimer's disease). People with high self-accustomed to cope with difficulties, and can for some time to cope with the disease, believed to University Medical Center Rasha.

The second interesting discovery made by scientists Karolinska Institute (Karolinska Institute) in Stockholm, Sweden. According to their data, the risk of the disease Alygeymera also directly linked to the level of education rights (article in the magazine «Neyrologiya» quotes Reuters).

According to the authors of the report, people who have 6-8 grades of education, ill with Alzheimer's disease at 43% less than those who had studied only five years or less. And among those who studied at the School of 9 or more years or have tertiary education, the risk of developing dementia is reduced by 84%. «Low level of education clearly increases the risk of dementia», no doubt Tiya Ngandu (Dr. Tiia Ngandu) from the Karolinska Institutet. According to her, people with high IQ, even feeling the first syndromes approaching Alzheimer's disease are able to resist, unlike those who had not previously engaged in intellectual activities. These findings are directly correlated with data obtained by American researchers.

According to the World Health Organization, from Alzheimer's disease worldwide suffer about 18 million people. As has been reported around the world, among the factors that increase the risk of developing the disease, known as smoking and loneliness.

Alzheimer DISEASE

Alzheimer DISEASE, degenerative brain disease, progressive decline reflected intelligence. First described by German physician A. Alzheimer in 1907, the disease is a common form of acquired dementia (dementia). Only in the U.S. Alzheimer's affects about 1.5 million. Of a total of 1.3 million people in the U.S. in nursing homes, 30% of people with Alzheimer's disease.

This disease affects people regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Most early disease recorded in 28 years, but usually manifests itself after 40-50 years. Although Alzheimer's disease often remains unknown, it ranked fourth among causes of death: in the U.S. die from it, it seems, more than 100 thousand people a year.

Alzheimer's was first described in people younger than 65 years, so the sooner it is called presenile dementia. It also mistakenly viewed as a manifestation of aging or as a «sclerosis» cerebral vessels. In fact, the disease associated with degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) and not the defeat of blood vessels.

Symptoms of Alzheimer's are diverse. Among them - a gradual decline in memory and attention, a violation of thinking and the ability to learn, disorientation in time and space, difficulty in selecting the words, the difficulties in communication, personality changes. Symptoms of dementia gradually progressing, leading eventually to the patient completely loses the ability to self and dies. The process of disintegration of the psyche may take several years, bringing suffering to the patient and his family.

Diagnosis. There is no test that would accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the doctor must exclude other causes symptoms of dementia diseases, especially those that may be cured, namely, tumors, trauma, infection, metabolic diseases, overdose of drugs, as well as psychiatric disorders such as depression or disturbing syndromes. Even after the exclusion of other diseases diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease remains conjectural. Confirm it can only microscopic examination of brain tissue, which usually posthumously. Only occasionally, the study conducted from a living person, which makes biopsy, and take small samples of brain tissue.

Changes in the brain, confirming the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, mostly identified in the outer layer of the brain (Korea) and the hippocampus, which lies deep in the hemisphere, and plays an important role in memory. In the microscopic study of these brain areas are found neurofibrillar glome and neyriticheskie plaque. Klubochki consist of the pathological changes of neurons containing abnormal proteins. Plaques represent areas of sediment in the intercellular space uglevodnyh-protein complexes - amyloid. The more in the brain and klubochkov blyashek, the more intelligent expressed violations.

Biochemical studies show that when Alzheimer's disease in the brain becomes much less acetyl transferring enzymes - an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of acetylcholine. The latter is neuromediator, and substance, which transmit the initiation of the one cell to another, and participates in the process of memory.

Treatment. Temporarily suspend or slow the progression of the disease through drug able takrina, but full recovery is now impossible. Therefore, mainly symptomatic treatment. Patients and their families to help adjust to the disease. We need to strive to maintain the patient may be more active lifestyles. If you have any nonsense, institution or other changes in behavior assigned medication.

The reason for Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Currently, numerous studies aimed at clarifying the role of viral infection, heredity, pathological immune responses, environment factors and toxic substances in the development of the disease.