Thursday, October 16, 2008

Alzheimer DISEASE

Alzheimer DISEASE, degenerative brain disease, progressive decline reflected intelligence. First described by German physician A. Alzheimer in 1907, the disease is a common form of acquired dementia (dementia). Only in the U.S. Alzheimer's affects about 1.5 million. Of a total of 1.3 million people in the U.S. in nursing homes, 30% of people with Alzheimer's disease.

This disease affects people regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Most early disease recorded in 28 years, but usually manifests itself after 40-50 years. Although Alzheimer's disease often remains unknown, it ranked fourth among causes of death: in the U.S. die from it, it seems, more than 100 thousand people a year.

Alzheimer's was first described in people younger than 65 years, so the sooner it is called presenile dementia. It also mistakenly viewed as a manifestation of aging or as a «sclerosis» cerebral vessels. In fact, the disease associated with degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) and not the defeat of blood vessels.

Symptoms of Alzheimer's are diverse. Among them - a gradual decline in memory and attention, a violation of thinking and the ability to learn, disorientation in time and space, difficulty in selecting the words, the difficulties in communication, personality changes. Symptoms of dementia gradually progressing, leading eventually to the patient completely loses the ability to self and dies. The process of disintegration of the psyche may take several years, bringing suffering to the patient and his family.

Diagnosis. There is no test that would accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the doctor must exclude other causes symptoms of dementia diseases, especially those that may be cured, namely, tumors, trauma, infection, metabolic diseases, overdose of drugs, as well as psychiatric disorders such as depression or disturbing syndromes. Even after the exclusion of other diseases diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease remains conjectural. Confirm it can only microscopic examination of brain tissue, which usually posthumously. Only occasionally, the study conducted from a living person, which makes biopsy, and take small samples of brain tissue.

Changes in the brain, confirming the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, mostly identified in the outer layer of the brain (Korea) and the hippocampus, which lies deep in the hemisphere, and plays an important role in memory. In the microscopic study of these brain areas are found neurofibrillar glome and neyriticheskie plaque. Klubochki consist of the pathological changes of neurons containing abnormal proteins. Plaques represent areas of sediment in the intercellular space uglevodnyh-protein complexes - amyloid. The more in the brain and klubochkov blyashek, the more intelligent expressed violations.

Biochemical studies show that when Alzheimer's disease in the brain becomes much less acetyl transferring enzymes - an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of acetylcholine. The latter is neuromediator, and substance, which transmit the initiation of the one cell to another, and participates in the process of memory.

Treatment. Temporarily suspend or slow the progression of the disease through drug able takrina, but full recovery is now impossible. Therefore, mainly symptomatic treatment. Patients and their families to help adjust to the disease. We need to strive to maintain the patient may be more active lifestyles. If you have any nonsense, institution or other changes in behavior assigned medication.

The reason for Alzheimer's disease is unknown. Currently, numerous studies aimed at clarifying the role of viral infection, heredity, pathological immune responses, environment factors and toxic substances in the development of the disease.

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