Alzheimer's disease (AD) - a primary degenerative disease of the brain - is characterized by progressive memory loss and other cognitive functions, as well as behavioral and other disabilities. According to the experts of the World Health Organization, asthma is the most common cause of dementia in elderly and senile age. Prevalence increases with age. In the group of persons over 65 years, the number of patients doubles every 5 years. In a changing demographic situation with the projected aging of the population worldwide problem of asthma is of particular relevance and socio-economic importance. In developed countries, asthma is considered as a future major public health problem. This is due to steadily increasing number of people at risk of developing the disease, and duration of disease and severe disability of patients requiring in some cases life-long hospitalization in special hospitals and orphanages. This disease creates a huge financial difficulties, and great social and psychological problems for the family and society. For example, in U.S. spending on management of patients with dementia in 2009 amounted to 144 billion dollars.
Global prevalence of dementia in the world (with a predominant proportion of BA), according to 2006 is 26.55 million persons. In the U.S., asthma affects 5.3 million people. A lot of people have reduced levels of cognitive function (eg, the syndrome of mild cognitive decline), which eventually may reach the level of dementia, thus increasing the number of sick people. By 2030 it is expected that 7.7 million Americans age 65 and older will suffer with asthma. According to statistical projections, the number of patients with asthma in the United States will steadily progress and may reach 11-16 million by 2050, a similar upward trend in the U.S. registers of patients with asthma and other industrialized countries, as well as in countries where there is a rapid increase in the older segment of the age in the population. According to current data, the global prevalence of asthma and other dementias will increase dramatically the next 40 years. Stunning data concerning forecasting prevalence of dementia worldwide, listed in records in 2009 and 2010, the International Association on the BA (ADI). Thus, the global prevalence of dementia in 2010 would be more than 35 million cases and nearly doubling every 20 years to 65.7 million in 2030 and 115.4 million in 2050, particularly the sharp increase of patients will occur in middle-and low-income countries.
As already noted, asthma is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Life expectancy as a risk factor for asthma is estimated 1:4-1:2. More than 14% of people over 65 suffer from asthma, and prevalence increased by at least 40% in people older than 80 years. The prevalence of asthma is higher among persons older than 60 years. Some forms of familial Alzheimer's disease with early onset disease may have been even in the third decade. However, these cases are sub groupings of less than 10% of all familial cases of Alzheimer's disease. More than 90% of cases of asthma are sporadic and occur in individuals older than 60 years.
Of interest are data from studies that examine groups of people aged 90-99 years, and century-old and older. Based on an analysis of the data suggested that the risk of disease may increase in persons over 90 years. In this case, age can be regarded as an absolute risk factor for the disease, but more research is needed.
According Plassman et al., The risk of developing asthma is significantly higher in women than in men, mainly due to higher average life expectancy of women compared with men.